Gas-filled surge arresters are classical components for protecting the installations of the telecommunications. It is essential that IT and telecommunications systems -with their high-grade but sensitive electronic circuits – be protected by arresters. They are thus fitted at the input of the power supply system together with varistors and at the connection points to telecommunication lines. They have become equally indispensable for protecting base stations in mobile telephone systems as well as extensive cable television (CATV) networks with their repeaters and distribution systems.

These protective components are also indispensable in other sectors:

  • In AC power transmission systems, they are often used with current-limiting varistors
  • In customer premises equipment such as DSL modems,WLAN routers, TV sets and cable modems
  • In air-conditioning equipment

The integral black-box concept offers graduated protection by combining arresters with varistors, PTC thermistors, diodes and inductors to create an ideal solution for many applications.

Crystal oscillators are used in a variety of applications. In some instances crystal oscillators may be used to provide a cheap clock signal for use in a digital or logic circuit. In other instances they may used to provide an RF signal source. In view of the fact that quartz crystals offer a very high level of Q and they are stable, crystal oscillators are often used in oscillator circuits to provide stable, accurate radio frequency signals.

There is a great number of different types of circuit that can be used for crystal oscillators, each one having its own advantages and disadvantages. One of the most common circuits used for crystal oscillators is the Colpitts configuration as shown below.

In this configuration, the crystal operates in a parallel mode. When running in this mode, the crystal should be presented with a load capacitance to operate on its correct frequency. This load capacitance is specified with the crystal and is typically 20 or 30 pF. The crystal oscillator circuit will be designed to present this capacitance to the crystal. Most of this will be made up by the two capacitors C1 and C2, although the remaining elements of the circuit will provide some capacitance.

Tantalum capacitors are manufactured from a powder of pure tantalum metal pressed to form a slug around a tantalum wire and subsequently vacuum sintered at high temperature. The resulting slug, although of high mechanical strength and density, is also highly porous giving a large internal surface area. This forms the positive "plate" of the capacitor. A dielectric layer of tantalum pentoxide is anodized on the surface of the tantalum anode, the cathode is formed by layers of manganese dioxide. Electrical contact is established by the deposition of carbon onto the surface of the "slug". The cathode connection is then made by means of conductive contact to a lead frame. Packaging is carried out to meet individual specification and customer requirements.

The tantalum capacitors must be used in such a conditions that the sum of the working voltage and ripple voltage peak values does not exceed the rated voltage.

"Mono" refers to a "monolithic" or "multilayer" capacitor. This just refers to the manufacturing process whereby the capacitor is formed by binding multiple, thin sheets of ceramic on which electrodes have been painted.

As the ceramic material technology continues to advance, more and more capacitance is realized in the same case sizes compared to previous years. Kingtronics produce and sell ceramic capacitors all types. Multilayer ceramic capacitors are available in four series in Kingtronics: AKT Series Axial Lead, Axial MLCC Capacitors(Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors), MKT Series Radial MLCC Capacitors(Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors), LKT Series Chip MLCC Capacitors(Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors) (6.3V to 50V), and HKT Series High Voltage MLCC Capacitors(Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors) (63VDC to 4000VDC).

Mitsubishi Polyester Film offers a complete portfolio of film products to support the worldwide Mono Capacitors and ceramic casting markets. Hostaphan® polyester film is approved for use in high end ceramic applications as a release liner. Hostaphan® film is the leading choice of polyester film for ceramic casting world wide. The Hostaphan® product delivers the following superior product attributes:

  • Extremely smooth surface
  • Optimized shrinkage
  • Superior handling characteristics
  • Chemical resistance
  • Excellent flatness
  • Ultra thin, highly cured coatings
  • Controlled static levels
  • Manufactured in a clean environment

Mitsubishi Polyester Film products are typically used in electronics applications. Hostaphan® polyester film product categories for ceramic casting film are as follows:

  • Ceramic substrates
  • Solvent based multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCC)
  • Water based multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCC)

Imagine a perfectly innocent quartz crystal that has grown to considerable size. It is lying there, at the bottom of a shallow sea, when a meterorite rudely invites itself to crash into the Earth's surface with considerable noise, pressure, heat.

There is so much pressure and heat, in fact, that only a meteorite or asteroid can cause what happens next: the quartz is shocked!

Shocked quartz is quartz that has been subjected to an event that cannot happen from normal Earthly causes and which has had its very planar structure changed. The only two known causes of shocked quartz are nuclear explosions such as the Alamo field and the incredible impact forces of meteorites or ancient asteroids. The Pleistocene/Holcene astroid impact is one of the biggest culprits. This impact occured in North America about 12,000 years ago, creating a type of brecciated rock called impact breccia.

One aspect of the impact that creates shocked quartz, however, is that high heat is not involved, or the quartz would revert to its original structure. In some shocked quartz samples, the quartz resumed its normal growth pattern within a section of planar deformities.

Brecciated rock is like gravel that is cemented together in a finely grained matrix that may or may not have the same composition as the gravel. Impact breccia is formed through extra terrestial or nuclear impact and is generally found in or around impact craters.

Quartz crystals are said to be the second most abundant substance in the Earth's crust. They are composed of silicon-oxygen tetrahedra where one oxygen molecule is shared between each two tetrahedron. The crystals grow perpetually in a six sided prism that terminates in a six sided pyramid.

Shocked quartz crystals contained shocked lamellae, or small fractures that create lines in the quartz that go along the planes of the crystal.  These planes can usually only be viewed under a microscope. \

But often, special microscope techniques, such as electron microscope, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Focused Ion Beam (FIB) tomography, cross polarization, reflected light, thin slicing and polishing are required before the microscopic deformations can be seen.

Sometimes, the deformations actually can be examined as if they were "pressure gauges", with various deformities helping to identify the amount of pressure that it would have taken to create them. New methods of examining the samples are being used, with goals of gathering more information and images of smaller and younger samples.

The most famous sites for such impact craters include the Chicxulub structure on the Northern Yucatan Penninsula of Mexico, the Bavarian Town of NÖrdlingen, Arizona, India, and generally in the K-3 boundary between Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks.

Contact us

Tel: (86) 769 8118 8110
Tel: (852) 8106 7033
Fax: (852) 8106 7099
E-mail: info@kingtronics.com
Skype: kingtronics.sales
MSN: kingtronics-sales@hotmail.com
Web: www.Kingtronics.com

About

Kingtronics International Company was established in 1995 located in Dongguan City of China to handle all sales & marketing for factories located in Chengdu, Sichuan and Zhaoqing, Guangdong, China. In 1990, we established the first factory to produce trimming potentiometer and in 1999 we built up new factory in Zhao Qing, Guangdong. Now with around 850 workers, Kingtronics produce trimming potentiometers, dipped tantalum capacitors, multilayer ceramic capacitors, and diode & bridge rectifier. We sell good quality under our brand Kingtronics, and Kt, King, Kingtronics are our three trademarks. All our products are RoHS compliant, and our bridge rectifier have UL approval. Please visit our Products page, you could please download all our PDF datasheet and find cross reference for our Trimming Potentiometer and capacitors.

Tantalum and Ceramic Capacitors Cross Reference ↓ Download
Diodes & Rectifiers List(PDF: 97KB) ↓ Download
Trimming Potentiometer Cross Reference ↓Download

Meet Kingtronics in Moscow soon
Chip EXPO 2017
Chip EXPO 2017
"Expocentre" Moscow Russia
Date: Oct 31 - Nov 2nd, 2017
Booth No.: B 20

Meet Kingtronics in Munich soon
Electronica 2018
Electronica 2018
New Munich Trade Fair Centre, Germany
Date: 13-16 November, 2018
Booth No.: To be advised

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